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:: Volume 38, Issue 166 (9-2019) ::
JHRE 2019, 38(166): 95-108 Back to browse issues page
Study of Yakhchals of Naeen with Analytical Viewpoint based on Elements of Vernacular Architecture
Mitra Azad, Mehdi Soltani Mohammadi *
Master of Restoration & Revitalization of monuments & sites, Shahid Beheshti University , mamati.soltani225@gmail.com
Abstract:   (878 Views)
Various climates and geographical variables of  iran prompted architectures to design buildings based on principles of vernacular architecture in order to reach the optimal styles which are highly compatible with the climate. In years gone by, Naeen’s hot and arid climate galvanized people into finding an effective way to tackle this adverse climate condition; therefore, a variety of techniques and style of living were taken into place to comply with this situation. As Ab-anbār  was used to store drinking water, Yakhchāl were constructed as reservoirs to preserve and store ice. Ice which was produced and stored during the winter and cold months of a year was used in hot months of the year. In the regions that climate is cold enough to maintain ice and snow stable in mountainous area during the whole year; no specific constructions were made to store ice. On the other hand, in arid and hot regions of Iran like Naeen, which have almost long summers with high air temperature, a structure called ice house was constructed based on Iranian architectural style so as to produce, store and preserve ice. The architectural features and physical structures of these constructions provided the chance to preserve ice, stored in the winter, until the end of the summer. Investigations show that despite the features and roles of the Yakhchāls of Naeen,. Nowadays, the reasons behind emergence of these constructions in Naeen per se cannot guarantee the preservation of them on the ground that modern life status is not compatible with the use of these structures. In fact, with the advent of industrial means of producing ice like refrigerators producing healthier ice with better sanitary condition, Yakhchāl have become desolate without any specific uses. This research is conducted by descriptive-analytical methods of study and assessing based on field and library research methods. Yakhchāls of Naeen including three ones located in Mohhamad abad, Baferan and Mohamadiye were placed out of residential area near gardens and farms in order to access water, channeled from Qanat, which is used to produce ice. The process of producing ice in Yakhchāl includes two stages. One of which is producing ice in ice-making ponds which covered by the shadow of walls and the second step is storing and preserving ice in an underground reservoir until a specific time (the summer). The first step is rooted in conformity with nature and circumstance. Avoiding futility and being Content which is one of the main elements of vernacular architecture- in the eye of most experts- can be seen in this step. At first step, with the help of ever-lasting natural forces and without any damages to the environment, the process of producing ice in ice-making ponds, based on indirect cooling down method, was done in very cold nights during the winter.  Next step is storing and preserving ice produced until the summer. To fulfill this step without using of electrical or mechanical equipments relying on Costly and Nonrenewable energies, an underground reservoir covered by a clay dome were designed.  Choosing this method of architecture to construct the reservoir under the ground and form the dome in a conical shape with material made of clay, made it possible to maintain the internal coldness of the reservoir and prevent ice from being melted.
Keywords: local Architecture, Natural and traditional ice production, Icehouse, Physical Structure
Full-Text [PDF 1668 kb]   (251 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: محیط کالبدی
Received: 2015/10/25 | Accepted: 2019/09/1 | Published: 2019/09/1
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Azad M, Soltani Mohammadi M. Study of Yakhchals of Naeen with Analytical Viewpoint based on Elements of Vernacular Architecture. JHRE. 2019; 38 (166) :95-108
URL: http://jhre.ir/article-1-1176-en.html

Volume 38, Issue 166 (9-2019) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مسکن و محیط روستا Journal of Housing and Rural Environment
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