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:: Volume 37, Issue 162 (9-2018) ::
JHRE 2018, 37(162): 39-54 Back to browse issues page
Investigating and identifying the granary architecture in the living of Zagros Semi Nomadic people in Ilam Province
Ebrahim Moradi *, Hasan Abas Nejad, Vahid Naseri
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University , moradi@ilam-iau.ac.ir
Abstract:   (492 Views)
From beginning of its presence on the earth, human has tried to exploit from the nature to provide his needs. Nomadism is one of the most primitive environmental and livelihood practices which has been continued since the distant pasts for exploiting from natural resources and being compatible with climate conditions. In this Living style, housing architecture has been mobile and portable.
Many studies have been already done about nomadism in different parts of Iran by Iranian and non-Iranian boards. These studies have generally been in fields of social system, popular culture, migration routes and places and even housing architecture type and nomadic life. But up to now, no independent study has been done about how to store foods among the nomads.
From the distant past, a species of the nomadism has been in Kordish tribes of Zagros ranges in Ilam province which, in this particular kind of nomadism, migration distances have been limited and the time interval of migrating from summer- to winter- quarters and vice-versa has been less than a day. During this little distance between summer - and winter- quarters, the nomads could also do agriculture in addition to fostering live stocks. Using agriculture in this kind of life obliged the nomads to build granaries for keeping the obtained grains.
In the process of this study, first a library study was conducted to gain a proper understanding about the semi-nomadic life and to getting familiar with this particular type of nomadic life. This study refers to the definitions of semi-nomadic life and its requirements and how semi-nomads encounter with the nature. Then, a field study was conducted to investigate the sample granaries which semi-nomads used them. This study has recognized and introduced some species of these granaries named Amarah, Tapoo, Kaneuwe and Chalav among the semi-nomadic tribes of Zagros foothills in Ilam province.
Amarah is one of these granaries which is built south ward and in rock ranges of mountains. These granaries were built in cylindrical forms and as strata on each other. The number of their strata was sometimes 4-5. Every stratum belonged to one family and a way to access to top strata was through a small opening being above every granary.
Tapoo is another one of these granaries which contained so many warehouses, have been connected to each other through passages. These connecting passages had a height of 70-80cm so as it was hardly possible to pass them. The mentioned warehouses with a volume of 1-2m2 have been built completely irregular and as layers in the depth of mountains’ gap.
Kaneuwe is another kind of granaries to store grains. Kaneuwes or beehive-like granaries have been built in the natural gap of rocks and in the inaccessible height. In spite of Tapoo, these granaries have one wall and it is possible to access the warehouses separately through small trapdoors which have settled on this wall.
Chalav is another kind of granaries to store grains. This kind of storing has been done by digging the land in the flat lands using clay. The digged well had a depth of 1.5-2m and a radius of 1m. In this kind of storing, first the pit's floor was covered by straw and at the same time, the walls were covered with straw by spilling and coming up the grains. Taking the land's moisture, the straw was swollen and played as detent stored grains. The final cover of these granaries was formed as a dome by straw and mud to direct surface water out of the well scope.
Although after being settled the trebles during some past ages, these granaries have been completely unused but the existence of these works in Zagros ranges acquaints us with this aspect of forgotten culture of semi-nomadic life in one hand with this stable architecture and in harmony with the nature by native people of these regions.
Keywords: nomadism, semi-nomadism, granary, tribes, Ilam.
Full-Text [PDF 549 kb]   (283 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: سکونتگاههای شهری و روستایی
Received: 2014/03/15 | Accepted: 2018/09/17 | Published: 2018/09/18
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Moradi E, Abas Nejad H, Naseri V. Investigating and identifying the granary architecture in the living of Zagros Semi Nomadic people in Ilam Province. JHRE. 2018; 37 (162) :39-54
URL: http://jhre.ir/article-1-800-en.html

Volume 37, Issue 162 (9-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مسکن و محیط روستا Journal of Housing and Rural Environment
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