Iran is prone to disasters and it ranks as one of the most disaster prone country in the world with floods, drought and earthquakes being the most frequent natural disasters. Rural areas with unconventional structures and structure-weak have high vulnerability to natural disasters. This is necessary for displacement and resettlement for villages against natural disasters such as floods, earth-quakes, landslides. Although exact statistics of vulnerable villages in countries is not provided, we can say with confidence that a considerable percentage of rural areas are at a high risk and should be staggered. Resettlement policy is one of the policies in the planning of rural settlements raised for rural development and provides optimal distribution of services to the villagers. In general, rural resettlement more after natural disasters in rural areas could help to solve the problems of rural people. Resettlement of rural people, although in times of crisis is essential, but must be tailored to local and socio-economic conditions and being implemented in form of projects. The overall objective of the rural resettlement is to pave the way for the establishment of villages located in high-risk zones and villages that for various reasons should be displace in order to improve the livelihoods and well-being of residents in different aspects. Accordingly, it is necessary for resettlement and optimal geographical location of villages to be based on comprehensive methods and in accordance with the environmental characteristics. Weber believes that the most important outcome of resettlement of rural settlements is in economic aspect and displacement causes the country's economic transformation and betterment in the economic situation of residents. Comparing the pattern of limited displacement and displacement combined with the integration of villages in the study area, showed that each of the studied patterns have advantages and disadvantages. Four patterns are, the pattern of continuous development, the pattern of movement and, assembly and integration pattern for the reconstruction of villages damaged or destroyed by natural disasters should be adopted. Heavy rainfalls in August 2005 in the eastern regions of Golestan province, lead to the occurrence of two devastating floods were included in amongst the most devastating floods occurred in the country. In order to prevent a recurrence flood consequences in these regions limited movement of 3 villages and movement accompanied with merge of 11 villages damaged in recent flood of Gorganrood to Faraghi region have been done.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of floods in these villages on livability by considering psychological indices. Livability is an overall concept which is connected with a number of concepts such as sustainability, quality of life, quality of place, and healthy communities. Livability often used to define various aspects of a community and common experiences that shaped it. Livability focuses on the human cognition of space and put them in a specific time and place form. So, Eight realm of employment and, income, housing, public education, participation and social cohesion and continuity, sense of belonging to place, personal and social security, quantity of green spaces, quality of landscape in the study area were selected for the study. In livable villages there is ground for cooperation, participation in decision making and decision taking. Also standard facilities and services has been provided for living in these villages. Livable rural settlements which have decent living conditions could be provided to creating hope and vitality among its residents. Livability patterns vary from one area to another and may be different from one point to another, because now after decades many villages suffer from the risks. The sample of the study are local families residing in villages using Cochran formula sample size was determined by 118 of heads of household. To compare two limited movement and aggregation patterns, the “Independent t test“ was used. Surveys indicate the average situation of livability in most of the parameters studied in both models of displacement and aggregation. In the aggregate pattern, social indices perform better than the pattern of displacement, while the success rate of displacement in the environmental index is better than the aggregate pattern. The results show that in the aggregation pattern, in three dimensions of livability, the highest score is for the social dimension. But the economic dimension and finally environmental dimension have the lowest scores. In Limited movement pattern, among the three dimensions of livability, the highest score is for the environmental dimension. But after the environmental, is the social aspect following by the economic aspect is at the end. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between the patterns of resettlement. Regardless of the choice of a model for resettlement, attention to environmental conditions at the new location to get working and living conditions of people in a residence habitable have utmost importance and planners should to provide a good quality of living in the settlement of the new settlement with any pattern of resettlement.