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:: Volume 37, Issue 161 (6-2018) ::
JHRE 2018, 37(161): 93-106 Back to browse issues page
Analysis and Typological Study of Troglodytic Architecture in the City of Naein
Mitra Azad, Mehdi Soltani Mohamadi Mr *, Mohamad Boluri Bonab
MA in Conservation and Restoration of Hirtorical Buildings and Sites, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran-Iran. , mamati.soltani225@gmail.com
Abstract:   (894 Views)
The oldest form of human shelters are hand-dug underground spaces. These shelters are older than the first built shelters. Ground as the first place and as a building material for shelters has played a significant role in shaping architecture. One of the uses of the ground in vernacular architecture is going to underground. In Naein, buildings that have been created underground are called “Bin”. Bins have various types, meaning that each Bin has different components, volume and size according its usage. There are valuable samples of Bins in different historical periods, such as spaces with residential use, water mills, mosques and textile workshops. Despite the diversity and specific characteristics of these structures, no complete research has been conducted on them.
Today the reasons that have led to the creation of Bin architecture in Naien cannot guarantee their maintenance. Because of their incompatibility with modern lifestyles, Bins are at risk of destruction. Our field data collection showed that in the city of Naien, Bafran and Mohammadieh areas various Bins have remained, while others have been destroyed completely. This issue shows the importance of the documentation about them. Additionally, this paper can be considered as a template for future studies aimed at documenting hand dug architectural spaces. Using a mixed method research, this paper seeks to identify the effective factors in the variety of Bins and developing a typology of them. Some of the plans of Bins are developed through the author’s field survey and are presented for the first time. The results showed that the hand dug monuments of Naien, based of natural features of the underground geological structure, their layout and the method of opening the underground space, can be classified into two types; underground Bins and dug Bins in clay wall. Mosalla mosque, residential structures under Rostam castle, GorAbad water mill, Molla Nor water mill and gown weaving workshops are categorized in “dug Bins in clay wall” group. In Naien this hand-dug architecture has been used in places where because of the differences in geological context, high walls are built so that horizontal access through the wall is possible. So a set of places has dug with different depth on the clay wall. Examples of the second category, “underground Bins” groups, include Rigareh water mill, Mehrijan water mill, AliAbad mosque and underground bed-chamber of Naien central mosque. In this group the flat surface of the ground did not prevent the creation of hand-dug architecture. The primary access to this hand-dug underground Bins is through wells, which at the same time provide ventilation and light for these spaces.
Keywords: troglodytic Architecture, Bin, underground architecture typology, Naein.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: محیط کالبدی
Received: 2015/10/4 | Accepted: 2018/04/7 | Published: 2018/06/11
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Azad M, Soltani Mohamadi M, Boluri Bonab M. Analysis and Typological Study of Troglodytic Architecture in the City of Naein. JHRE. 2018; 37 (161) :93-106
URL: http://jhre.ir/article-1-1154-en.html

Volume 37, Issue 161 (6-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مسکن و محیط روستا Journal of Housing and Rural Environment
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