Given the ancient history of the Kurdish region in western Iran, its seemingly simple architecture has not been thoroughly investigated. This research is an attempt to identify and characterize vernacular housing in western Kurdistan. The main aim of the research is to recognize the elements and concepts of these typologies, as well as the application of these concepts, and to inspire contemporary architects and designers.
In the contemporary architectural discourse, various approaches seek to sustain architecture traditions, including procedural typological approach with its principles for understanding the physical and subjective factors in architecture. The application of this approach provides a good basis for describing how the cultural, social and climatic characteristics in the region could survive.
In the literature, Kurdistan province has been named Madad, Jabal, Mountain, Cisar and Ardalan. The mountains of the Kurdistan region in western Iran from about 10,000 years ago were sheltered by people whose works’ traces were found on the Sarab and Asiab hill near Bisotun, the Ganj - Dareh in Harsin (Kermanshah) and Sialk Kashan. Habitats that until the contemporary era, due to their formation based on cultural, climatic and social characteristics and coexistence with the nature are architecturally important and valuable. Most of the previous studies have been conducted in Oraman. In this study the target area, in addition to Oraman, is the cities of Marivan, Kamyaran and Sarvabad, in other words, the western region in the Kurdistan province.
This study includes fieldwork and the investigation of physical factors, and it utilized the method of typology (deductive-decreasing). During the fieldwork, data were collected and categorized from about 100 mountainous settlements in western Kurdistan. Then, 3D models were mapped and analyzed in the typology process.
The results of this research show four architectural typologies in these settlements. The first Type, which is more abundant, is a rectangular cube, without a yard, which usually has three floors. The second type has no yard and like stairs follows mountain topography. The architecture of these two types is extroverted. Buildings in the third type are larger than last two types, featuring a large courtyard. The fourth type is "L" shaped building and has a small courtyard. These two types of architecture are semi-extroverted. Communal spaces (terraces, corridors and courtyard roofs) are the best vernacular guides for contemporary designers and architects in this Kurdish region.
In this study, by using the concepts of procedural typology approach, local architecture in the western Kurdish Region has been analyzed based on physical-subjective factors considering the interaction between past and contemporary architecture. It must be said that the effect of climate on the form and its height and its locating, slope of site, local and natural materials have been the main elements of the formation of the settlements. Characteristics of this kind of architecture are based on desire to nature and the context, extensive implant of flowers and fruit trees, locating on slope to have a perspective to nature and other buildings, and the provision of the habitants with collective spaces to meet their needs to have a conversation and relax in cool weather as well as creating a space for women’ daily routine.