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:: Volume 39, Issue 171 (12-2020) ::
JHRE 2020, 39(171): 61-72 Back to browse issues page
A Typology of Sistan's Vernacular Housing in Terms of Open and Closed Space Formation
Zohreh Oveisi Keikha *, Hosseinali Kavosh Dr, Abolfazl Heidari Dr, Jamshid Davtalab
Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Zabol, Iran , z.oveise@uoz.ac.ir
Abstract:   (519 Views)
Housing types depend on the relationship between human needs and the environment. They are variable and complex due to humans’ different lifestyles and environmental conditions. What distinguishes them is not the constituent parts; rather, it is the logic of the spatial arrangement of the components, which varies based on the time, place and way of residence and represents the cultural, economic and climatic characteristics of the residence method. Identifying and preserving the heritage of vernacular architecture in general and of rural architecture in particular help us to preserve national historical assets and apply the long-established principles remaining from the past eras to new physical forms via discovering the mysteries, signs and symbols hidden in these assets. This can also help to preserve the identity and authenticity of vernacular architecture in rural settlements. On the one hand, the study of rural architecture can improve spatial designing based on the characteristics of different regions. On the other hand, it can solve some of the problems related to the fabric of urban and rural settlements and lead to formation of favorable villages. Vernacular housing types, especially in rural areas, are strongly influenced by their surrounding environment. Therefore, discussing the housing typology of each region requires an understanding of the context, location and rural fabric of that region. Typology is one of the most basic scientific steps toward this goal. Proper identification and categorization of the different types of architecture can help better understand, preserve and protect various spaces and find modern and effective designing methods. Developed via field measurements, observations and library research, this article is the result of the study of local housing samples from 20 selected villages in Sistan (located on a low flatland in the southeastern parts of Iran and north of Sistan and Baluchistan Province whose fabric is rich and valuable) using the descriptive-analytical research methodology. This study sought to classify and introduce the physical characteristics of vernacular housing in Sistan in terms of the formation of open and closed spaces. The results showed that Sistan, situated east of Iran with more than 900 villages and a 5,000-year history of permanent settlement from the era of Shahr-e Sukhteh, has special climatic conditions, and its social and livelihood structure has led to formation of unique housing architecture types. The common houses of Sistan’s people used to be very simple and rudimentary in the past but the types of these residential abodes have grown more complex and varied throughout time. These types include basal, linear, L-shaped, U-shaped, central courtyard and kiosk. Analyses performed in this research indicated that segregation of the living space and the livestock space is one of the most influential factors for determining the type of rural abodes in Sistan Region. Based on this criterion, the housing types with the highest frequency, i.e. linear, L-shaped and U-shaped, can be grouped into two subcategories: equipped with Dakanche and equipped with Mahtabi. In addition, this research indicated that the central courtyard and kiosk housing types are exclusive to the local chiefs and khans and are known as Sardari houses. Given that recent constructions in the rural areas of Sistan are being modeled after urban housing, promotion of these house types can help revitalize vernacular rural housing in Sistan.
Keywords: Typology, Village, Indigenous housing, Open and closed space, Sistan
Full-Text [PDF 520 kb]   (196 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: سکونتگاههای شهری و روستایی
Received: 2020/07/18 | Accepted: 2020/12/16 | Published: 2020/12/16
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Oveisi Keikha Z, Kavosh H, Heidari A, Davtalab J. A Typology of Sistan's Vernacular Housing in Terms of Open and Closed Space Formation. JHRE. 2020; 39 (171) :61-72
URL: http://jhre.ir/article-1-2027-en.html

Volume 39, Issue 171 (12-2020) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مسکن و محیط روستا Journal of Housing and Rural Environment
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