In order to meet the development goals in the housing sector, recognizing housing features should serve as the basis for planning based on the needs, problems and opportunities. Understanding these features and attributes is possible only by defining and using an framework for definitions and standard concepts. Indicators are well-defined and efficient tools for understanding these features and analyzing the results based on them could be an appropriate reference for formulating strategies, policies and goals in plans and plans. Despite the studies to recognize rural housing that have been carried out in a number of Iranian provinces over the past two decades , they cannot form the basis of planning and designing housing alone, or present a clear picture of the situation in different regions. Furthermore, most of these studies have used simpler methods to evaluate rural housing. Accordingly, the present study attempts to review the literature on rural housing and extract the indices in four dimensions: physical, economic, social and environmental. The study uses the data of sampling of rural housing features in year 2013 by Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution. For analyzing the data, the study adopts FANP model and cluster analysis, as well as a comprehensive assessment of rural housing in country’s provinces.
The physical dimension of rural housing was studied at two scales: the scale of the residential unit and the village scale. Latter emphasizes the relationship between the housing functional space and the economic, social and environmental conditions of its inhabitants. From this point of view, the physical desirability based on empirical studies on the assessment of rural housing units was classified in four ways: first, the framework and physical structure of this body that constitutes the cornerstone of the body. Second, the spaces created as a result of this physical framework, and the third, the functional relationship of the residential unit with its surroundings and the fourth; the beauty of rural residential units. These four elements shape the theoretical basis for the study of the physical indices.
Similar to the physical dimension, the indexes were also considered in two scales: the first level focuses on providing basic physical and psychological needs at the level of residential units, and the second level, the extent of the village's access to residential accommodation units of the service and infrastructure and welfare facilities. Economic indicators were selected based on five criteria of livelihood variety, livelihood resilience, affordability, market and investment, and productivity. Furthermore, after reviewing the literature related to the environmental dimension, two criteria of the environmental impacts of rural residential units on the ecosystem and the degree of adaptation of the rural residential unit to the environment and nature have been extracted.
The findings show that each province, considering the specific conditions of the region (such as climatic, natural, cultural and lifestyle patterns, development plans and the like) could progress in some of these dimensions. For example, the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran in the physical, Khorasan Razavi, and East Azarbaijan provinces in the economic dimension, Qom province, and the Yazd province in the environmental dimension are leading and without a centralized planning, promoting these patterns in other provinces of the country. In this way, some key indicators that fall under the authority of the Housing Foundation of the Islamic Revolution could be made possible for the provinces to have an impetus for the region and, possibly, the country. This suggests the need for a spatial, integrated, decentralized, and groundbreaking plan for rural housing.